有一次余光中先生來我們學校演講。我每一場都去聽了,印象最深的一場是談論西洋詩歌的韻律,還有詩歌吟唱。
雖然我是唸中文系的,系上文學概論課程也教授西洋文學,但是我對於現代詩歌或西洋詩歌沒什麼研究,沒什麼興趣。漢語不是拼音文字,所以中國古典詩歌的韻律,由單字的聲調來決定,作詩的時候,要考慮平仄,又詩的類別不同,押韻的規則和平仄對偶也不同,譬如樂府、古詩、絕句、律詩等,甚至詞曲也算是廣義的詩歌。我一直覺的中國古典詩比較有趣,韻律的特色就在一個一個的字,文言文讓詩看起來簡明,經過扭曲,讀起來很有意思。有些詩讀起來就像一幅圖畫,有些詩讀起來,如同到了塞外荒漠,也有些詩讀起來很有瑰麗感,也有些詩讀起來狹狔、情色無邊。把詩的每字讀音串連起來,可以看到詩的情緒起伏,有些詩起伏小而頻繁、有些詩大起大落、有些詩則幾乎沒有起伏。
因此,我一直覺的中國古典詩歌很有趣,詩的意象也很清晰,我記得杜甫的〈秋興八首〉,其一的「聽猿實下三聲淚,奉使虛隨八月槎」,這兩句話,我的老師花了一節課說。胡適先生曾講到這首詩,說是「完過頭的字謎」,刻意扭曲字,使意思隱藏,又用了典故, 所以很難理解這兩句到底要說些什麼。這就是中國詩歌的趣味地方了。
相較起來,西洋詩歌或者現代詩沒什麼特別的。
大一的文學概論談到西洋詩歌,授課老師很喜歡Pablo Neruda,特別講了他一首作品〈詩〉(Poetry),原文是西班牙文,我們上的是翻譯成英文的。當時我聽的一塌糊塗,只覺得這首詩從頭到尾就在說「詩怎麼來的」,既不是聲音、也不是文字,不知道什麼時候來的,也不知道從哪裡來的,對我來說,這簡直就是胡言亂語,老師要我們找該作品的意象,我只覺得根本沒有意象可言。
現代詩就更不用說,除了喜歡余光中先生作品中的〈夢李白〉、〈尋李白〉、〈戲李白〉而買了他的幾本詩集外,我根本沒看過其他的。詩歌,就是我的禁地、摸不得,踏不進。
所以,我會去聽余光中先生的演講,根本不是因為很喜歡詩歌,我只是慕名而去的。
聽完演講後,我後悔我大一為什麼沒有專心聽老師講西洋詩,因為我發現西洋詩歌竟是多麼美妙的東西,Neruda想對我說的話,Baudelaire想由韻律傳送的情緒,我通通都錯過了!
那天晚上,我躺在床上想,畢竟演講只是開端,既然有興趣了,明天就去借幾本書來看看。我喜歡余光中先生朗讀Robert Frost" The Road Not Taken"、"Stopping By The Snowy Wood"這兩首詩。這兩大詩人曾見過面,當時余光中先生很年輕,Robert Frost已經很老了。是不是有見過面,所以對Frost的詩特別了解,我覺得就是Robert Frost本人在唸自己作品,閉起眼睛聽很有感觸。
因為這場演講、因為余光中先生的朗讀,我瘋狂喜歡上Robert Frost,包括他的作品和他。

我很想多寫一點,但是我整晚沒睡覺,有點累了,下面我先貼上"The Road Not Taken"和"Stopping By The Snowy Wood"兩首詩讓大家看看,先唸幾遍、再想一想,我覺得會有什麼的。

The Road Not Taken (Mountain Interval, 1916)

Two roads diverged in a yellow wood,
And sorry I could not travel both
And be one traveler, long I stood
And looked down one as far as I could
To where it bent in the undergrowth;

Then took the other, as just as fair,
And having perhaps the better claim,
Because it was grassy and wanted wear;
Though as for that, the passing there
Had worn them really about the same,

And both that morning equally lay
In leaves no step had trodden black.
Oh, I kept the first for another day!
Yet knowing how way leads on to way,
I doubted if I should ever come back.

I shall be telling this with a sigh
Somewhere ages and ages hence:
Two roads diverged in a wood, and I─
I took the one less traveled by,
And that has made all the difference.


Stopping By The Snowy Wood (New Hampshire, 1923)

Whose woods these are I think I know.
His house is in the village, though;
He will not see me stopping here
To watch his woods fill up with snow.

My little horse must think it queer
To stop without a farmhouse near
Between the woods and frozen lake
The darkest evening of the year.

He gives his harness bells a shake
To ask if there is some mistake.
The only other sound's the sweep
Of easy wind and downy flake.

The woods are lovely, dark, and deep,
But I have promises to keep,
And miles to go before I sleep,
and miles to go before I sleep.




詩的來源是
The Poetry Of Robert Frost, The Collected Poems. By Robert Frost, edited by Edwar Connery Lathem, published by An Owl Book Henry Holt And Company in 1979
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Cogito & Microcosmos

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